我要进行一次辩论赛,关于全球化与环境的,英语Arguments for or against the view that globalization helps solve environmental problems我们是反方,from the perspective of some students(negative)答得好的话重分感谢!明天

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我要进行一次辩论赛,关于全球化与环境的,英语Arguments for or against the view that globalization helps solve environmental problems我们是反方,from the perspective of some students(negative)答得好的话重分感谢!明天
我要进行一次辩论赛,关于全球化与环境的,英语
Arguments for or against the view that globalization helps solve environmental problems
我们是反方,from the perspective of some students(negative)
答得好的话重分感谢!
明天就要进行比赛了,在线等!

我要进行一次辩论赛,关于全球化与环境的,英语Arguments for or against the view that globalization helps solve environmental problems我们是反方,from the perspective of some students(negative)答得好的话重分感谢!明天
The processes that we now think of as “globalization” were central
to the environmental cause well before the term “globalization”
came into its current usage. Global environmental concerns were
born out of the recognition that ecological processes do not always
respect national boundaries and that environmental problems often
have impacts beyond borders; sometimes globally. Connected to
this was the notion that the ability of humans to act and think at a
global scale also brings with it a new dimension of global responsibility—
not only to planetary resources but also to planetary fairness.
These ideas were central to the defining discourse of contemporary
environmentalism in the 1960s and 1970s1 and to the
concept of sustainable development that took root in the 1980s and
1990s.2
The current debate on globalization has become de-linked from its
environmental roots and contexts. These links between environment
and globalization need to be re-examined and recognized. To
ignore these links is to misunderstand the full extent and nature of
globalization and to miss out on critical opportunities to address
some of the most pressing environmental challenges faced by
humanity. The purpose of this paper is to explore these linkages in
the context of the current discourse.
For its February 2007 meetings, the Global Ministerial
Environment Forum (GMEF) of the United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) has selected environment and globalization as
one of its areas of focus. This paper has been prepared as an independent
input to that process. The thrust of the paper, therefore, is
on policy-relevant debates and its principal audience is environmental
leaders assembling in Nairobi, Kenya, for the GMEF meetings.
However, the paper aspires also to be relevant to audiences and
debates beyond this meeting. We hope that the paper will inspire
discussions—even if they are critical of our analysis—on the nature
and importance of the links between environment and globalization.
It is hoped that the discussions that will begin in Nairobi willnot end there—that these conversations will not only be carried
back to national capitals, but will also be carried forward by leaders
of government, international organizations, civil society and business.
We hope that this paper will contribute to a more vigorous
conversation on environment and globalization at Nairobi, and
beyond.
This paper has been produced independently by the International
Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) with financial support
from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of
Denmark. The process was led by David Runnalls (IISD’s President
and Chief Executive Officer) and Mark Halle (IISD’s Director of
Trade and Investment and European Representative). The principal
author is Prof. Adil Najam (IISD Associate and Associate Professor
at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University),
who was assisted in the research by Mihaela Papa and Lauren K.
Inouye.3
The paper has benefited tremendously from the insights and ideas
of an ad hoc advisory group that met twice in Geneva (October
2006 and January 2007). These meetings were attended by the
authors and researchers as well as by Hussein Abaza (Egypt), Tariq
Banuri (Pakistan), Susan Brown (Australia), Tom Burke (United
Kingdom), Kim Carstensen (Denmark), Marion Cheatle (United
Kingdom), Dharam Ghai (Kenya), Jean-Pierre Lehmann (France),
Kilaparti Ramakrishna (India/United States), Phillipe Roch
(Switzerland), Laurence Tubiana (France) and Dominic Waughray
(United Kingdom), all of whom inspired and shaped the ideas contained
here in countless ways. In addition, this paper has also benefited
from the advice and encouragement of Achim Steiner,
Executive Director of UNEP.We are also grateful to Aaron Cosbey
of IISD for providing very useful comments on the final draft.We
are especially grateful to Mihaela Papa and Lauren K. Inouye of the
Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University, for their
invaluable research assistance, and for their substantive and significant
contributions to the ideas contained here. The paper remains
a totally independent publication, and the views expressed here do
not necessarily represent the official position of either the
Government of Denmark or of UNEP.
Environment and
Globalization: Understanding
the Linkages
Although the contemporary debate on globalization has been contentious,
it has not always been useful. No one doubts that some
very significant global processes—economic, social, cultural, political
and environmental—are underway and that they affect (nearly)
everyone and (nearly) everything. Yet, there is no agreement on
exactly how to define this thing we call “globalization,” nor on
exactly which parts of it are good or bad, and for whom. For the
most part, a polarized view of globalization, its potential and its
pitfalls has taken hold of the public imagination. It has often been
projected either as a panacea for all the ills of the world or as their
primary cause. The discussion on the links between environment
and globalization has been similarly stuck in a quagmire of many
unjustified expectations and fears about the connections between
these two domains.
Box 1. Defining globalization.
What is Globalization?
There are nearly as many definitions of globalization as
authors who write on the subject. One review, by Scholte, provides
a classification of at least five broad sets of definitions:4
Globalization as internationalization. The “global” in globalization
is viewed “as simply another adjective to describe
cross-border relations between countries.” It describes the
growth in international exchange and interdependence.
Globalization as liberalization. Removing governmentimposed
restrictions on movements between countries.
Globalization as universalization. Process of spreading ideas
and experiences to people at all corners of the earth so thataspirations and experiences around the world become harmonized.
Globalization as westernization or modernization. The social
structures of modernity (capitalism, industrialism, etc.) are
spread the world over, destroying cultures and local self-determination
in the process.
Globalization as deterritorialization. Process of the “reconfiguration
of geography, so that social space is no longer wholly
mapped in terms of territorial places, territorial distances and
territorial borders.”
Although the debates on the definition and importance of globalization
have been vigorous over time, we believe that the truly relevant
policy questions today are about who benefits and who does
not; how the benefits and the costs of these processes can be shared
fairly; how the opportunities can be maximized by all; and how the
risks can be minimized.
In addressing these questions, one can understand globalization to
be a complex set of dynamics offering many opportunities to better
the human condition, but also involving significant potential
threats. Contemporary globalization manifests itself in various
ways, three of which are of particular relevance to policy-makers.
They also comprise significant environmental opportunities and
risks.
1. Globalization of the economy. The world economy globalizes
as national economies integrate into the international economy
through trade; foreign direct investment; short-term capital
flows; international movement of workers and people in general;
and flows of technology.5 This has created new opportunities
for many; but not for all. It has also placed pressures on the
global environment and on natural resources, straining the
capacity of the environment to sustain itself and exposing
human dependence on our environment.6 A globalized economy
can also produce globalized externalities and enhance global
inequities.7 Local environmental and economic decisions cancontribute to global solutions and prosperity, but the environmental
costs, as well as the economic ramifications of our
actions, can be externalized to places and people who are so far
away as to seem invisible.
2. Globalization of knowledge. As economies open up, more
people become involved in the processes of knowledge integration
and the deepening of non-market connections, including
flows of information, culture, ideology and technology.8 New
technologies can solve old problems, but they can also create
new ones. Technologies of environmental care can move across
boundaries quicker, but so can technologies of environmental
extraction. Information flows can connect workers and citizens
across boundaries and oceans (e.g., the
rise of global social movements as well
as of outsourcing), but they can also
threaten social and economic networks
at the local level. Environmentalism as a
norm has become truly global, but so
has mass consumerism.
3. Globalization of governance. Globalization places great stress
on existing patterns of global governance with the shrinking of
both time and space; the expanding role of non-state actors;
and the increasingly complex inter-state interactions.9 The
global nature of the environment demands global environmental
governance, and indeed a worldwide infrastructure of international
agreements and institutions has emerged and continues
to grow.10 But many of today’s global environmental problems
have outgrown the governance systems designed to solve
them.11 Many of these institutions, however, struggle as they
have to respond to an ever-increasing set of global challenges
while remaining constrained by institutional design principles
inherited from an earlier, more state-centric world.
The relationship between the environment and globalization—
although often overlooked—is critical to both domains.12 The environment
itself is inherently global, with life-sustaining ecosystems
and watersheds frequently crossing national boundaries; air pollution
moving across entire continents and oceans; and a singleshared atmosphere providing climate protection and shielding us
from harsh UV rays.Monitoring and responding to environmental
issues frequently provokes a need for coordinated global or regional
governance. Moreover, the environment is intrinsically linked to
economic development, providing natural resources that fuel
growth and ecosystem services that underpin both life and livelihoods.
Indeed, at least one author suggests that “the economy is a
wholly-owned subsidiary of the ecology.”13
While the importance of the relationship between globalization and
the environment is obvious, our understanding of how these twin
dynamics interact remains weak. Much of the literature on globalization
and the environment is vague (discussing generalities);
myopic (focused disproportionately only on trade-related connections);
and/or partial (highlighting the impacts of globalization on
the environment, but not the other way around).
It is important to highlight that not only does globalization impact
the environment, but the environment impacts the pace, direction
and quality of globalization. At the very least, this happens because
environmental resources provide the fuel for economic globalization,
but also because our social and policy responses to global environmental
challenges constrain and influence the context in which
globalization happens. This happens, for example, through the governance
structures we establish and through the constellation of
stakeholders and stakeholder interests
that construct key policy debates. It
also happens through the transfer of
social norms, aspirations and ideas
that criss-cross the globe to formulate
extant and emergent social movements,
including global environmentalism.
In short, not only are the environment
and globalization intrinsically linked,
they are so deeply welded together
that we simply cannot address the
global environmental challenges facing us unless we are able to
understand and harness the dynamics of globalization that influ-ence them. By the same token, those who wish to capitalize on the
potential of globalization will not be able to do so unless they are
able to understand and address the great environmental challenges
of our time, which are part of the context within which globalization
takes place.
Table 1. Environment and globalization: some examples of interaction.

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